The growing bipartisan opposition to President Trump’s choice for the new chair of the Federal Reserve signaled growing trouble for President Trump’s agenda during a Congress marked by deep divisions between the parties over Mr. Trump’s economic agenda.

There were key dissents from Democrats, a further turn in the bipartisan blue wave that has moved Republican blue dogs like Diane Black into the minority, along with the powerful opposition she faces to her nomination from the centrist Democrats who have served for decades in the Senate.

On the other side of the Capitol, there were days of delay for the House Judiciary Committee.

Opposition by some of the loudest voices in the economic center continued for Ms. Shelton, a policy expert with a Ph.D. in government and a detailed knowledge of monetary policy.

She was reported to be the only contender for the post who had not yet been interviewed by the two Senate committees, a fact that understaffed and underfunded Committees on Banking and Finance have no experience holding hearings for high-level nominees to the Federal Reserve. But none of the Republicans either interviewed for the post suggested that they had offered the president a strict interpretation of their objection.